Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893 â September 9, 1976) was the Chairman of the Politburo from 1943 and the Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death. Ng Yong-sang. .  His grandson Mao Xinyu is a general in the Chinese army.  In spring 1917, he was elected to command the students' volunteer army, set up to defend the school from marauding soldiers. Historian Daniel Leese notes that in the 1950s Mao's personality was hardening: During his leadership, Mao traveled outside China on only two occasions, both state visits to the Soviet Union. The United States placed a trade embargo on the People's Republic as a result of its involvement in the Korean War, lasting until Richard Nixon's improvements of relations.  He is also known as a political intellect, theorist, military strategist, poet, and visionary. The deaths of others meant nothing to him.  The CPC founded the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China, better known as the "Red Army", to battle Chiang. They nevertheless adopted three policies he had long championed: the immediate formation of Workers' councils, the confiscation of all land without exemption, and the rejection of the KMT.  Some also attributed Mao's decline in health to the betrayal of Lin Biao. In doing so, he molded his men into a disciplined, efficient fighting force..  Revolutionary sentiment was strong in the city, where there was widespread animosity towards Emperor Puyi's absolute monarchy and many were advocating republicanism. This accompanied a decline in state recognition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organised numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's 100th birthday. Mao also launched a phase of rapid collectivization. Based upon the fabricated success, party cadres were ordered to requisition a disproportionately high amount of that fictitious harvest for state use, primarily for use in the cities and urban areas but also for export.  Mao undertook feats of physical endurance with Xiao Zisheng and Cai Hesen, and with other young revolutionaries they formed the Renovation of the People Study Society in April 1918 to debate Chen Duxiu's ideas.  As an example, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) followed Mao's examples of guerrilla warfare to considerable political and military success even in the 21st century. It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill.". Although the steel quotas were officially reached, almost all of the supposed steel made in the countryside was iron, as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in home-made furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal. United States fliers shot down over North China ... confirmed to their superiors that the CPC was both strong and popular over a broad area. , Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one, especially in manners of guerrilla warfare, at which Mao is popularly regarded as a genius. In December, they tried to overthrow Mao, resulting in the Futian incident, during which Mao's loyalists tortured many and executed between 2000 and 3000 dissenters.  But from late summer on, Mao essentially forgot about this issue, until, as noted, the "Xinyang Incident" came to light in October 1960.. The northern provinces remained loyal to the emperor, and hoping to avoid a civil war, Sun—proclaimed "provisional president" by his supporters—compromised with the monarchist general Yuan Shikai.  By 1921, small Marxist groups existed in Shanghai, Beijing, Changsha, Wuhan, Guangzhou, and Jinan; it was decided to hold a central meeting, which began in Shanghai on July 23, 1921. Mao has been portrayed in film and television numerous times. . While one-tenth of Chinese people—an estimated 100 million—did suffer during the period, some scholars, such as Lee Feigon and Mobo Gao, claim there were many great advances, and in some sectors the Chinese economy continued to outperform the West. These demonstrations ignited the nationwide May Fourth Movement and fueled the New Culture Movement which blamed China's diplomatic defeats on social and cultural backwardness. He saw that the revolution and Great Leap Forward had replaced the old ruling elite with a new one.  Frank Dikötter estimates that there were at least 45 million premature deaths attributable to the Great Leap Forward from 1958 to 1962. In November it proclaimed Jiangxi to be the Soviet Republic of China, an independent Communist-governed state. Landlords, rich peasants, former members of the nationalist regime, religious leaders, rightists, counter-revolutionaries and the families of such individuals died in the greatest numbers. The most direct of these was Minister of Defence and Korean War veteran General Peng Dehuai. We put everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal. Supporters credit him with driving imperialism out of China, modernising the nation and building it into a world power, promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, as well as increasing life expectancy of average Chinese.  Facing internal problems, members of the Jiangxi Soviet accused him of being too moderate, and hence anti-revolutionary. , Mao claimed that he missed the July 1922 Second Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai because he lost the address. , Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that the uprising was in fact sabotaged by Mao to allow him to prevent a group of KMT soldiers from defecting to any other CPC leader. But as fresh and abundant archival evidence shows, coercion, terror and systematic violence were the foundation of the Great Leap, and between 1958 and 1962, by a rough approximation, some 6 to 8 per cent of those who died were tortured to death or summarily killed—amounting to at least 3 million victims. [unreliable source? It said: "Mao Tse-tung passed away at 0010 hours on Sept. 9 (12:10 P.M. Wednesday, New York time) because of the worsening of his illness and despite all treatment, although meticulous medical care was given him in every way after he fell ill." 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