7, (1992), 1-7Marshall, P, 'The internal arrangement of the donjon at Colchester in Essex: a reconsideration' in The Castle Studies Group Journal, , Vol. The street is a cambered metalled surface, c8.5m wide and up to 0.8m thick. House plots were laid out over the bailey ditch in 1680-3. The building comprises at least seven rooms opening off a west corridor, with a further corridor or open passage to the south running parallel to the street. Simple theme. Much of the castle was a ruin by the 16th century although it continued in use as a county gaol until 1668 and even after that was a prison until 1835. The castle is located in the historic market town of Colchester … A vaulted drain 0.5m wide has been recorded c4m north and west of the altar, and probably follows a square course around it. 15, (1984), 7-50Drury, P, 'Aspects of the Origins and Development of Colchester Castle' in The Archaeological Journal, , Vol. Opens image gallery. Behind the arch are slots for a portcullis. Just to the west of the waterworks are the foundations of a small rectangular building, c7m long and 5m wide, with a porch attached to the west side. It is located on the foundations of the Roman Temple of Claudius. In 1892 Dr Henry Laver directed excavations during the laying out of Castle Park. Trusted by over 3 million drivers across the UK. 1003772). (S3282_V_0651), Women outside the 3000th Easiform dwelling to be completed in Bristol, watching the opening ceremony through a ground floor window as a policeman guards the entrance nearby, © Historic England Archive. 3, (1971), 115-130Cotton, M, ''The Norman Bank of Colchester Castle' in The Antiquaries Journal, , Vol. The precinct appears to have been occupied for domestic purposes in the late C4 or early C5, possibly as a defended residence. We apologise for this delay. At the north-west of Castle Park are the buried remains of insula 6; a rectangular street block extending c128m east-west by c91m north-south. This may originally have been the location of an antechamber. Some of the most important historical finds in Britain can be found in Colchester Castle, from Celtic coin hoards to Roman statues and mosaics, medieval paintings to civil war armour. It occasionally hosted trials, including trial by combat, which was last recorded in 1375. Numerous putlog holes (for medieval scaffolding) can be seen. An arched drain extends from the north-east corner of the main sunken room. In the late 11th century the Normans built a castle in Colchester. Find out about services offered by Historic England for funding, planning, education and research, as well as training and skill development. Colchester Castle's Roman Vaults, which were used as an air raid shelter in the Second World War In a letter to his cousin, dated 7th December 1939, Eric describes the use of the Castle Vaults as an air raid shelter: The only way in which we are compelled to acknowledge the existence of the war so far is the use of our vaults for air raid shelters. The latter were added in the mid-C18 when the keep was mistakenly thought to be a Roman building; ‘Mediterranean style’ tiles were therefore considered to be in-keeping. Colchester castle was built for William I, probably by Eudes the sewer c. 1076, using for the foundation of the keep the podium of the Roman temple of Claudius. He attempted to dismantle the towers and walls using gunpowder and excavated the sandy soil beneath the arched foundations in search of treasure, creating the vaults that remain today. Colchester Castle is a large Norman keep in the centre of town and a visit includes access to the excellent local history museum. The whole building was thereafter occupied by the museum, a function continued to the present day (2017). Further east are two small chambers entered from the north; a rectangular barrel-vaulted room known as the ‘Lucas Vault’ and a crypt within the apse. The castle was built around the ruins of the colossal Temple of Claudius using the Roman temple vaults as its base, parts of which can be seen to this day. In the first phase a single-storey keep was constructed. Discover and use our high-quality applied research to support the protection and management of the historic environment. Whilst Colchester is perhaps best known as a Roman city its history stretches back well beyond that with an ancient Iron Age settlement, once ruled by Cuneobelin 'King of the Britons' established here long before the Romans arrived. In the C10 the former precinct may have been part of a villa regalis (royal manor or estate). The Temple of Claudius served as the centre of the Roman imperial cult in Britain and a primary target of the Boudiccan revolt (AD 60-61). Colchester (/ ˈ k oʊ l tʃ ɛ s t ər / ()) is a historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex.Colchester was the first Roman-founded Colonia in Britain, and Colchester lays claim to be regarded as Britain's oldest recorded town. Built from 1076 (some say from 1069) and completed in around 1100, Colchester Castle was constructed under the order of King William I for use as a royal fortress. The lift, modern doors, modern museum displays and fittings, electric lighting and water pipes in the keep are also excluded. Round rejected the hypothesis of the castle’s Roman origins, which had been revived by some of his contemporaries. However the ground beneath all these features is included. A walk was created along the upper bailey from a rotunda to a summerhouse, and a parterre and canal garden were laid out to the north. Colchester is home to Colchester Castle and Colchester United Football Club. Three of these buildings were uncovered in 1920. It was for a time the capital of Roman Britain, and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network. Colchester Hythe Station is 14 minutes by foot and Colchester … Established by c50 BC, the oppidum occupied an area of c28 square miles. Nightflix Drive-In Cinema. For small corrections to the List Entry please see our Minor Amendments procedure. It was a fortress palace which shared similarities in design to the White Tower, London, (built from c1075-9) particularly an apsidal projection for a chapel at the south-east corner, and Norwich Castle (c1100). The keep was sold to John Wheeley for building materials in 1683. In 1782 the property passed to the Round Family. From the C14 onwards the military value of the castle appears to have declined. The temple (or basilical hall) may also have been in use at this time. Altogether these form an impressive and valuable ensemble that well illustrates the development of Colchester. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. Construction. In the 1740s, a local Member of Parliament bought the castle and created the gardens surrounding it. The entrance was further strengthened in the C13 when the forebuilding was incorporated within a larger barbican, low walls of which also survive. Colchester Castle was built just after the Norman Conquest. Rudsdale's Journals of Wartime Colchester', Victoria County History of Essex: Colchester, World War II today: Wartime events as they happened, Essex Society for Archaeology and History. There are slots within it, either for timber partitions or to hold machinery. So much so that by the Norman Invasion in 1066 the Castle was built on the site of the old Roman Temple and it again became one of the most important English towns. Much of the wall’s circuit is still upstanding and passes east to west across the northern boundary of Castle Park (Scheduled Monument No.1003772). Evidence indicates it was preceded by a decline and contraction in the settlement. The bailey walls were dismantled and the stone sold in 1649. Each house is rectangular in plan with four ranges opening onto corridors surrounding an open courtyard or garden. Historic England holds an extensive range of publications and historic collections in its public archive covering the historic environment. Colchester Castle was the base Hopkins used to imprison and interrogate many witches. The walls are constructed of dressed septaria and tile with a rubble core. View prices, availability and restrictions for on-street and off-street options - and book your space in advance for peace of mind. Colchester Castle would go on to serve several other roles, including being besieged in 1215 by King John and becoming the site of interrogation and jailing of “witches” in 1645 by a self-proclaimed Witchfinder General called Matthew Hopkins. The space immediately outside the prison cells includes several timber posts with arched braces supporting the floor above; these were possibly added when a museum exhibit was inserted into the building in the 1930s. It is c16m long by 6m wide and formed the western end of a block extending eastwards. The solid outer foundations are up to c6m thick at the east and west, and c2.5m thick at the north and south. The walls are 1.5m wide and constructed of courses of septaria and tile. Immediately south of insula 6 is insula 14 (centre west of Castle Park). About Colchester Castle. Colchester Castle, rear from NW. At the centre of the main range is a large sunken room, c12m long by 6m wide, with walls up to 1.8m high and nearly 1m thick, faced internally with tiles. The north range is partly located beneath the north bank of the upper bailey and comprised an inner and outer wall c8m apart. The latter formed a study. Colchester is situated on a low plateau between the river Colne to the north and the Roman River to the south. It stood 9m high with an entrance in the south-west corner reached by a staircase and a crenellated parapet wall. A chamber is built within the thickness of the buttress of the south wall and, although previously thought to be part of the chapel, may instead be part of an enlarged corner tower. in 1645 Matthew Hopkins, a witchfinder, used the Castle to … St Botolph's Priory was founded around 1100. It is 46m by 33.5m wide, with the longer axis running north-south, and c27m high. We are working hard and following Government guidance to protect our visitors and staff. These were uncovered in 1892 during the laying out of a path across the upper bailey and are Grade II listed (List entry No. It is delimited by the intervallum road at the north and three streets on the south, east and west. In 1892-6 the surrounding grounds were altered to form a public park, now known as Castle Park (a Grade II registered park, List entry No: 1000208). Further west there are the remains of an inner wall for a south passage that probably formed a walkway between the original roof edge and outer wall. This location was of tactical importance, being at the junction of the River Medway and the famous Roman Watling Street and it is not hard to see why the Normans decided to use this as a location for the fortress. It is formed of stone foundations c10m square. It has the footings of a monumental entrance arch or gateway at the centre. These may be part of a grouping that originally surrounded it. Unfortunately, due to the nature of the building, guided tours may be inaccessible for anyone with mobility difficulties. A wooden chapel was built just to the south in the late Anglo-Saxon period or slightly later, and was decorated with a wall painting of the Virgin and Child. colchester castle in a sentence - Use "colchester castle" in a sentence 1. Internally the building is divided into two compartments by a wall with a doorway at its north end. Image not available. A new bailey was added shortly before the rebellion of 1173-4. An intervallum road runs inside it and survives below-ground. Colchester Castle. Hence the street blocks beneath it include from north to south: insula 6 and 7, insula 14 and 15, and insula 22 (the Roman temple). The south side of the precinct was formed by a monumental arcade resting on a foundation platform c4.5m wide and 1.6m deep. There are two exposed sections of the outer wall of the north range upstanding within the park (at TL9981325388). Trusted by over 3 million drivers across the UK. His death in the Castle seems to have been accelerated by brutal treatment and neglect. It is partly exposed within modern railings adjacent to Ryegate Road. Beneath the bridge are the low walls of a narrow rectangular forebuilding, entered from the east. By using this website, you consent to cookies being used in accordance with our. Rudsdale's account of life on the home front in the Second World War on Twitter, Before the war began Eric recorded how Colchester Castle Museum was preparing for the conflict. It comprised the podium supporting the cella (inner chamber) of the temple and the pronaos; a colonnaded entrance façade formed of eight columns (octastyle) supporting a pediment. He employed the architect James Deane to carry out repairs and alterations to the keep, including new segmental-headed windows, a study above the north-east tower in 1746, and a dome above the great staircase in 1760. The bailey bank was excavated by M Alwyn Cotton in 1950, followed by further works on the defences by Ros Niblett in the 1960s. 3. It has been suggested that the keep was at one time four storeys high, though for a number of reasons, including the peaceful region of the castle and the lack of local stone, it is now thought that it had only two or three. An arched drain runs beneath a street on the east side of the insula, near the east boundary of Castle Park. These arches were originally constructed by smoothing the sandy soil into curves, over which wooden shuttering was placed and then stone and mortar built on top. During the English Civil War, Parliamentarians laid siege to Colchester. The walls survive as low footings immediately to the south of the later keep.A domestic stone hall was built to the south of the chapel, possibly prior to the construction of the Norman keep. Find out about listed buildings and other protected sites, and search the National Heritage List for England (NHLE). The diary extracts and photographs published in this blog appear by kind permission of the heirs to Eric Rudsdale's estate and, Catherine Pearson, 2020. There are two mid-C18 additions at this level; a 1760 extension of the south-west turret covered by a brick dome with a tile roof and a 1746 extension of the north-east turret covered by a pyramidal tiled roof. Our website works best with the latest version of the browsers below, unfortunately your browser is not supported. PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS However it may also have been symbolic; the Norman rulers were perhaps asserting their status as the inheritors of Rome and a continuity of authority from the Anglo-Saxon villa regalis. However the size and position of the podium indicate that it comprised a cella (inner chamber) at the north flanked by columns and a pronaos (colonnaded entrance façade) at the south formed of eight columns (octastyle) supporting a pediment.The temple podium is a rectangular platform orientated north-south built of ragstone rubble faced with septaria and brick. The Norman keep was built in at least two main phases. It is the largest known classical temple in Britain. A bailey was created to the north of the keep, consisting of a substantial bank and ditch, probably with a timber palisade. There has always been debate as to the original height of the castle. The Danes probably used Colchester as a stronghold as it still had its Roman walls. The northern and eastern arms of the defences survive as landscaped earthworks within Castle Park. The castle well was examined by the North East Essex Aqua Club in 1972, followed by excavations in and around the keep by P J Drury and E J Rodwell in 1977. Septaria walls and tessellated floors were partially uncovered on the west side of the insula in 1927-8. Rudsdale's Journals of Wartime Colchester' in 'Essex Life' magazine, January 2011, see pages 86-89, Buy the book: 'E.J. 1, (1981), .Crummy, P, 'The Castle that Eudo built' in Colchester Archaeologist, , Vol. At the south-west corner of insula 6 are the exposed upstanding remains of a house uncovered in 1892 during the laying out of Castle Park. A multi-period site encompassing part of a Roman legionary annexe, part of a Roman colony, a classical temple known as the Temple of Claudius, a late Anglo-Saxon or Norman chapel and associated buildings, and a Norman hall-keep castle known as Colchester Castle.DESCRIPTIONROMAN LEGIONARY FORTRESS ANNEXE AND COLONY It is a square block extending c99m east-west by c99m north-south, delimited by roads on each side (Hull 1958, 85-91). Catch some classic Christmas movies from your car at a drive-in cinema. The wooden chapel was subsequently succeeded by a masonry building. There are six rooms within it. These are better credentialed resources than the Wikipedia article itself. The following information has been contributed by users volunteering for our Enriching The List project. Welcome. In the 1500s people were put to death for following their personal faith rather than official religious practice. Colchester Castle was used as a gaol for over 600 years. This extension contained the castle well, which would have otherwise been difficult to sink through the podium. The Roman historian Tacitus (cAD 56-c120) records that the citizens of Colchester made a last stand in the temple, holding out for two days before they died. Conserving the Fog Battery Station on Lundy Island. Max Hebditch uncovered part of the south side of the Roman temple precinct in 1964. The footings of the arcade survive as buried remains, immediately to the south of Castle Park, some of which are exposed beneath a glass covering within the floor of the apartment block One Castle Park. Most of the Norman hall-keep remains upstanding, including considerable architectural detail of the entrance, chapel, corner turrets and outer walls; The latter is considered to have been the residence of King Cunobelin and his descendants, who controlled a substantial portion of south-eastern Britain prior to the Roman conquest. The temple was built by the Romans between 49 and 60 CE in their city Camulo... Much better than I expected it to be, displays are well laid out with easy to read explanations of the history of the place from the Romans to the present day. Large segmental-headed windows, with brick mullions and leaded lights, were inserted into the keep in the mid-C18. This enterprise eventually proved unprofitable and was abandoned. Colchester Castle Museum, Colchester: See 1,087 reviews, articles, and 501 photos of Colchester Castle Museum, ranked No.12 on Tripadvisor among 69 attractions in Colchester. The building was approached via steps at the south. It takes a sinuous course north-east for c21m, where it meets the north-south road, before continuing 168m north on a straighter course beneath the road, through insula 7, out of the north gateway and into the outer ditch of the Roman colony. Colchester Castle - geograph.org.uk - 891015.jpg 640 × 306; 185 KB Colchester Castle - Lucas and Lisle monument.JPG 2,736 × 3,648; 2.06 MB Colchester Castle 2008 wts.jpg 1,024 × … The drain increases in size along its length and varies from c0.3m-0.6m wide and 0.7m-1.4m high at the outlet near the Roman gateway. Please follow the link below for the latest updates. The second phase is marked by the use of Roman tile quoins. The history of Colchester Castle was largely shrouded in legend until Round—also the owner of the castle—initiated a more rigorous approach to the castle’s history in his History and Antiquities of Colchester Castle (1820). The north wall of the Roman colony forms the south boundary of Castle Park and is a separate scheduling (List entry No. olchester Castle is located on the exposed East coast of the country and was needed by William the Conqueror to defend against the invading Danes. Gundulf, the Bishop of Rochester took control of the construction as well as the White Tower in London and building work may have started in 1080. Please see our terms and conditions. Surrounding the building is a rectangular walled enclosure formed by double walls at the south, east and west, and a single wall at the north. I felt the museum was decent, but would have liked it to delve deeper into some of the key events- there’s lots of items to see (pottery etc) but not a huge amount of information on what actually… Structural remains belonging to two or more buildings have also been identified nearby. The west side of the gateway survives to approximately 1.8m above foundation level.LATE ANGLO-SAXON OR NORMAN CHAPEL AND ASSOCIATED BUILDINGS Buckler, G., 1876, Colchester Castle a Roman Building (Colchester) (King writes 'well illustrated and not useless, despite its preposterous thesis') Timbs, J. and Gunn, A., 1872, Abbeys, Castles and Ancient Halls of England and Wales Vol. Colchester and Ipswich Museums approached Peel Interactive to develop an app to enrich their visitor experience. The chapel was subsequently rebuilt in masonry. Every effort has been made to make Colchester Castle a great place to visit for everybody. There were two main centres of agricultural and industrial activity within it; at Sheepen and Gosbecks, respectively. The Norman keep, built in late 1060s or 1070s, is rectangular in plan with square turrets projecting from three corners and an apse projecting east from the south-east angle. There are also partial remains of insula 23 at the south-east corner of the park. The castle was built on the vaults of the old temple of Claudius. Castle Park not only encompasses much of Colchester's rich heritage within its boundaries but is much loved and used as a part of present day life. Immediately to the south of the temple podium are the buried remains of a chapel built in the late Anglo-Saxon period or slightly later. Conservation work to the historic fabric was carried out in the 1980s and in 2013-14.INVESTIGATION HISTORY It has been a county prison, where in 1645 the self-styled Witchfinder General, Matthew Hopkins interrogated and imprisoned suspected witches. Shortlisted for ‘Best Rescue of an Industrial Building or Site’ Angel Award in 2012, Michaela Strivens: Upside down world, Wallington, London Suburbs, Read about our latest aerial investigation methods. In a letter to his cousin, dated 7th December 1939, Eric describes the use of the Castle Vaults as an air raid shelter: The only way in which we are compelled to acknowledge the existence of the war so far is the use of our vaults for air raid shelters. Dr Philip Laver continued in the footsteps of his father Henry, undertaking excavations at the keep in 1922 and immediately to the south in 1931-33. 1727. The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system. In 1076 work began on Colchester Castle, the first royal stone castle to be built by William in England. In AD 49 the Roman legion (probably Legio XX) was relocated, the defences of the fortress were slighted and a Roman colony (a settlement for retired legionary soldiers) was established; Colonia Victricensis (loosely meaning ‘City of Victory’). The cella was flanked with columns to each side but had a solid wall at the rear. A multi-period site encompassing part of a Roman legionary annexe, part of a Roman colony, a classical temple known as the Temple of Claudius, a late Anglo-Saxon or Norman chapel and associated buildings, and a Norman hall-keep castle known as Colchester Castle. Unfortunately, due to the nature of the building, guided tours may be inaccessible for anyone with mobility difficulties. A barbican with two D-shaped towers was added to strengthen the entrance in the C13. At a later date, but possibly before the construction of the Norman keep, a domestic stone hall was built to the south. The ditch of the medieval upper bailey has encroached upon a large part of it. This Halloween, Colchester Castle is launching a brand-new escape experience. Le château de Colchester est un château situé dans la ville anglaise de Colchester, Essex. There are several loopholes in each side. In 1992 a lift-shaft was excavated within the building by the Colchester Archaeological Trust. It is c7.5m wide with a septaria retaining wall on the north-side. South of the castle the bailey earthworks have been levelled but survive as buried remains. There are two main phases of construction visible between the lower and upper storey. There were originally two large rooms at the north; a wide western space (c29m by 18m) that may have been the Great Hall and a narrow eastern one (c28m by 6m) that may have served as apartments, or, more specifically, a bed chamber and audience chamber. It marks the north-east corner of the Roman annexe defences, which continue to the west and the south from this point.The Roman colony (Colonia Victricensis) founded in AD 49 included 46 street blocks or insulae (Gascoyne and Radford 2013: 105). The north, east and west walls abut the Roman temple podium but the south side is placed beyond it. Colchester Castle will be welcoming visitors from Wednesday 2nd December. A tessellated pavement was identified at the north-west corner of the insula in 1852-3 (TL9994225440). The castle was mentioned for the first time in history in a charter dated in 1101, mentioning that the town and the castle of Colchester were granted to “Eudo Dapifer,” a Norman aristocrat close to William I, by his son Henry I. Among these was the Temple of Claudius; the centre of the Imperial cult in Britain. The latter was perhaps formed by ranges with open porticos and rooms on three sides, and a monumental arcade with a central arched entrance on the fourth (south) side. Seven years later the Essex Archaeological Society held its inaugural excavation in Holytrees Meadow, which was overseen by Dr P M Duncan. , projects and campaigns nationally and in the Castle ’ s military function had come to an end rebellion! Also determined that the rooms have tessellated floors were partially uncovered on the high street target was largest. 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