During the Rashidun Caliphate, the official language of Persia (including Mesopotamia) remained Middle Persian (Pahlavi), just as the official languages of Syria and Egypt remained Greek and Coptic. [7][8], When Western academics first investigated the Muslim conquest of Persia, they relied solely on the accounts of the Armenian Christian bishop Sebeos, and accounts in Arabic written some time after the events they describe. During Abu Bakr's era, Khalid ibn al-Walid had left Mesopotamia with half his army of 9000 soldiers to assume command in Syria, whereupon the Persians decided to take back their lost territory. The messages said; “In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Merciful. They basically belong to the ethnic Indo-European group and exclusively to the ancient Indo-Iranian ethnic group. Next, he besieged the provincial capital, Zrang, and, after a heavy battle outside the city, its governor, Aparviz, surrendered. Years of warfare between the Sasanians and the Byzantines, as well as the strain of the Khazar invasion of Transcaucasia, had exhausted the army. The Muslim army was forced to leave the conquered areas and concentrate on the border. Some time later, Uthman ibn Abi al-As managed to establish a military base at Tawwaj, and soon defeated and killed Shahrag near Rew-shahr (however, other sources state that al-'As's brother did this). And after an interval of silence, Iran reemerged as a separate, different and distinctive element within Islam, eventually adding a new element even to Islam itself. He then laid siege to Jalawla for seven months, ending in the city's capture. Arabs trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of tribes of Arabia from the Syrian Desert and Arabian Peninsula; Persians are a part of the Iranian inhabitants. Pourshariati argues that the Arab conquest of Mesopotamia "took place, not, as has been conventionally believed, in the years 632–634, after the accession of the last Sasanian king Yazdgerd III (632–651) to power, but in the period from 628 to 632. and updated on September 24, 2012, Difference Between Similar Terms and Objects, Difference Between Data Mining and Data Warehousing, Differences Between the Kurds and the Turks, Difference Between Social Norm and Market Norm, Difference Between Collectivist and Individualistic Culture, Difference Between Collectivism and Individualism, Difference Between Vitamin D and Vitamin D3, Difference Between LCD and LED Televisions, Difference Between Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates, Difference Between Civil War and Revolution. Akram. After resting his armies, in June, Khalid laid siege to the city of Al Anbar, which surrendered in July. On the northeastern borders of the Empire, in Mesopotamia, the situation was rapidly deteriorating. [52] Merv was the capital of Khurasan and here Yazdegred III held his court. [75], Arab Conquest of Persia, that led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire, Strategic planning for the conquest of Persia, First Muslim invasion and the successful Sasanian counter-attack, Conquest of Southeastern Persia (Kerman and Makran), The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. The main rebellions were in the Persian provinces of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Fars, Sistan (in 649), Khorasan (651), and Makran (650). At least under the Rashiduns and early Ummayads, the administrative system of the late Sassanid period was largely retained: a pyramidal system where each quarter of the state was divided into provinces, the provinces into districts, and the districts into sub-districts. The Muslim army first concentrated at Tazar, and then defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nahavand in December 642. While Heraclius prepared for a major offence in the Levant, Yazdegerd ordered the concentration of massive armies to push the Muslims out of Mesopotamia for good through a series of well-coordinated attacks on two fronts. Under Umar and his immediate successors, the Arab conquerors attempted to maintain their political and cultural cohesion despite the attractions of the civilizations they had conquered. [44] The Persian citizens sued for peace, agreeing to pay the Jizya. Language is considered to be one of the most important identifying factors for Arabs. [45], One year later, Abd-Allah ibn Amir sent an army under Rabi ibn Ziyad Harithi to Sakastan. The last, Yazdegerd III, was a grandson of Khosrau II and was said to be a mere child aged 8 years. All praise and thanks be to Allah who disperses your power and thwarted your deceitful plots. After entering Mesopotamia, he dispatched messages to every governor and deputy who ruled the provinces. Meanwhile, Hamadan and Rey had rebelled. By the lethal standards of Near Eastern history, there is little without precedent in the war between Iran and Iraq. Umar ordered Ahnaf to stand down and instead consolidate his power south of the Oxus. As a matter of practicality, the jizya replaced the Sassanid poll taxes, which tended to be much higher than the jizya. The troops concentrated at Tuster, north of Ahvaz. All these factors undermined the strength of the Persian army. FACT: Persians and Arabs are two distinct ethnic groups – two peoples with different languages, cultures, and histories. Thank you Quora User for asking me As much as German, French and English cultures are different. The Sassanid dynasty came to an end with the death of Yazdegerd III in 651. After the victory at Tustar, Abu Musa marched against the strategically important Susa in January 641, capturing it after a siege of a couple of months. The word “Arab” is also used for “Bedouin” or Arab nomads exclusively. Both the language and the race are influenced by Arabs after Islam. It also spreads from Central Asia to the Caucasus in the north and finally to the Persian Gulf in the south. While Bukair was still kilometres away from Tiflis, Umar instructed him to divide his army into three corps. The Arab squadrons defeated the Persian army in several more battles culminating in the Battle of Nahāvand, the last major battle of the Sassanids. However, the first real invasion took place in 650, when Abd-Allah ibn Amir, having secured his position in Kerman, sent an army under Mujashi ibn Mas'ud there. [10] Despite their recent victories over the Byzantine Empire, the Parthians unexpectedly withdrew from the confederation, and the Sassanians were thus ill-prepared and ill-equipped to mount an effective and cohesive defense against the Muslim armies. However, during the Ummayad Caliphate, the Ummayads imposed Arabic as the primary language of their subjected people throughout their empire, displacing their indigenous languages. [15] It contributed to the fall of the Sasanian Empire. Khalid ibn Walid sends this message to the satraps of Persia. The Suwad, the Tigris valley, and the Euphrates valley were now under complete Muslim control. After several years, Caliph Umar adopted a new offensive policy,[38] preparing to launch a full-scale invasion of what remained of the Sassanid Empire. The Persians then withdrew to Hulwan. The conquest of Iranian Azerbaijan started in 651,[49] part of a simultaneous attack launched against Kerman and Makran in the southeast (described above), against Sistan in the northeast and against Azerbaijan in the northwest. There were three purposes for this conquest. Culturally, politically, and most remarkable of all even religiously, the Iranian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance. This entire stretch is called the “Iranian Cultural Continent.”. Persian Armenia, north of Azerbaijan, remained in Persian hands, along with Khurasan. The subdistricts were called tasok in Middle Persian, which was adopted into Arabic as tassuj (plural tasasij). After crossing the Dasht-i Lut desert, Mujashi ibn Mas'ud reached Sakastan, but suffered a heavy defeat and was forced to retreat. Making Al-Hirah the objective of Khalid, Abu Bakr sent reinforcements and ordered the tribal chiefs of northeastern Arabia, Al-Muthanna ibn Haritha, Mazhur bin Adi, Harmala and Sulma to operate under Khalid's command. [34], After the conquest of Khuzistan, Umar wanted peace. If I were to put their differences in a nutshell, I would say Iran is a robust nation with a strong sense of nationhood, united by a common sense of Persian heritage, whereas the Arab world is a divided and seemingly dysfunctional confederation of warring tribes and nations spanning across two continents and 20 plus states, divided by accents and religious sectarianism, yet beaming with the potential of … The bloodshed goes back not 31/2 years, but 5,000. Yazdegerd himself narrowly escaped to China.The Muslims had now reached the outermost frontiers of Persia. This peace also proved short-lived once Hormuzan was reinforced by fresh Persian troops sent by Emperor Yazdgerd III in late 640. The Difference: Persians vs Arabs; Iranians vs Semites. Suhail marched from Busra in 643; passing through Shiraz and Persepolis, he joined with other armies and then marched against Kerman, which was subdued after a pitched battle with the local garrisons. From Nahavand, Nu'man ibn Muqaarin marched to Hamadan, and then proceeded 370 kilometres (230 mi) southeast to the city of Isfahan, defeating a Sasanian army there. When the main Arab army reached the Persian borders, Yazdegerd III procrastinated in dispatching an army against the Arabs. After the devastating defeat at Nahavand, the last Sassanid emperor, Yazdegerd III, fled to different parts of Persia to raise a new army, with limited success, while Umar attempted to capture him. In 650/651, Yazdegerd went there to plan an organized resistance against the Arabs, and, after some time, went to Gor. For the history of the region before the 7th century, see ancient Iran. Farsi is a word that refers to the dialect of the Persian language being spoken by the people of Iran. Akram. However, Muthanna bin Haritha was later victorious in the Battle of Buwayb. Iran to India. In 648, 'Abd-Allah ibn al-'Ash'ari forced the governor of Estakhr, Mahak, to surrender the city. Linguistics- Those people whose first language is Arabic. [citation needed]. According to Thomas Walker Arnold, for the Persian, he would meet Ahura Mazda and Ahriman under the names of Allah and Iblis. He accordingly marched against the border city of Firaz, where he defeated the combined forces of the Sasanian Persians, the Byzantines and Christian Arabs in December. The Zagros mountains, a natural barrier, marked the border between the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sassanid Empire. Umar decided to deal with Jalawla first, thereby clearing the way to the north, before taking any decisive action against Tikrit and Mosul. Even when a strong king emerged following a series of coups, the Sassanids never completely recovered. Nu'aym then marched 240 kilometres (150 mi) northeast towards Qom, which was captured without much resistance. It is now widely believed that the annexation of the Lakhmid kingdom was one of the main factors behind the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the subsequent Islamic conquest of Persia, as the Lakhmids agreed to act as spies for the Muslims after being defeated in the Battle of Hira by Khalid ibn al-Walid.[14]. Persian people, or Persians, are those people who are a part or group of Iranian peoples. Persian and Arab histories only merge in the 7th century with the Islamic conquest of Persia. [65][68] While giving freedom of choice, the Arab conquerors designated privileges for those who converted to Islam. In April 637, Hashim led 12,000 troops from Ctesiphon to win a victory over the Persians at the Battle of Jalawla. Azerbaijan then surrendered to Caliph Umar, agreeing to pay the annual jizya. Once the reinforcements arrived, Khulayd and some of his men managed to withdraw to Bahrain, while the rest withdrew to Basra. The remainder of Yazdegerd's army was defeated at the Battle of Oxus River and retreated across the Oxus to Transoxiana. MYTH: Persians and Arabs are one-and-the-same. The relationship between Arabs and Persians has always been a source of controversy, not only owing to the contemporary power struggle in the region, but also because of a long history of rivalry that formed an integral part of the national psyche of both people. The Lakhmids also revolted against the Persian king Khusrau II. First, along the border between Arabia and these two great empires were numerous nomadic Arab tribes serving as a buffer between the Persians and Romans. [73] This was particularly true for the eastern parts of the country, for regions like Khorasan and Transoxiana. [6] However, the Persians began to reassert themselves by maintaining Persian language and culture. ... which was under pressure from the Arab invaders, and was on the verge of being lost. The second invasion began in 636 under Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, when a key victory at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah led to the permanent end of Sasanian control west of Iran. The latter formed the bulk of the population, served as its sole tax base, and remained its poorest class. Umar, allegedly aware of this alliance, capitalized on this failure: not wanting to risk a battle with two great powers simultaneously, he quickly moved to reinforce the Muslim army at Yarmouk to engage and defeat the Byzantines. In fact, they are culturally very proud and refuse to speak or learn arabic. Abu Bakr hoped that these tribes might accept Islam and help their brethren in spreading it. [71] Moreover, Muslim missionaries did not encounter difficulty in explaining Islamic tenets to Zoroastrians, as there were many similarities between the faiths. By February 638 there was a lull in the fighting on the Persian front. Under the Command of Allah, I invite you to Him. Nu'man III (son of Al-Monder IV), the first Christian Lakhmid king, was deposed and killed by Khusrau II in 602, because of his attempt to throw off Persian suzerainty. Khosrau was defeated at the Battle of Nineveh in 627, and the Byzantines recaptured all of Syria and penetrated far into the Persian provinces of Mesopotamia. [23] With the success of the raids, a considerable amount of booty was collected. The Persian alphabet changed after Arabs invaded Iran 1400 years ago and lots of Arabic words entered the language. In return for his life, he agreed to surrender his estates in Azerbaijan and persuade others to submit to Muslim rule. [3] At that time, a series of battles between the Persians and Arabs occurred in the region of Sawad, such as Namaraq, Kaskar and Baqusiatha, in which the Arabs managed to maintain their presence in the area. Instead of appointing a single field commander to press the campaign, Umar appointed several commanders, each assigned a different mission. Umar then would send them a detailed plan of how he wanted the region to be captured. Farsi language makes use of the same Arabic alphabet that Arabic does, though it is a fact, that Persian language had its own alphabet centuries ago. Persians live in Iran to the Indus River of Pakistan and to Turkey in the west. The Khan of Farghana, realizing that fighting against the Muslims might endanger his own kingdom, withdrew from the alliance and pulled back to Farghana. He afterward turned his energies towards his traditional Byzantine enemies, leading to the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628. Rey was already in Muslim hands and Nishapur surrendered without resistance. But Iran, or Persia, "Difference Between Arabs and Persians." During his reign, almost the whole of the former Sassanid empire's territory rebelled from time to time, requiring him to send several military expeditions to crush the rebellions and recapture Persia and its vassal states. When 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Samura reached Sakastan, he suppressed the rebellion and defeated the Zunbils of Zabulistan, seizing Bust and a few cities in Zabulistan.[46][48]. Currently, in modern times, Arabs are identified on the criteria of: Persian people speak the Persian language. During the eight years between Iraqs formal declaration of war on September 22, 1980, and Irans acceptance of a cease-fire with effect on July 20, 1988, at the very least half a million and possibly twice as many troops were killed on both sides, at least half a million became permanent invalids, some 228 billion dollars were directly expended, and more than 400 billion dollars of damage (mostly to oil facilities, but also to cities) was inflicted… On the one hand, he who performs our prayers facing the direction of our Qiblah to face the sacred Mosque in Mekkah and eats our slaughtered animals is a Muslim. Arab people, or Arabs, are those people who inhabit the Arab world. Muslim control of Fars remained shaky for a time, with several local rebellions following the conquest. Umar strictly instructed his commanders to consult him before making any decisive move in Persia. “Persians” are an ethnic group inside the country of Iran, in the Iranian Plateau. [10] However, after the last Sasanian-Byzantine war, the Parthians wanted to withdraw from the confederation, and the Sasanians were thus ill-prepared and ill-equipped to mount an effective and cohesive defense against the Muslim armies. These are referred to as Persian Arabs (in Arabic العرب الفرس Arab al-Furas). In the wake of Khalid's demise, Umar appointed Abdullah ibn Uthman as commander of the Muslim forces for the invasion of Isfahan. Most persians speak farsi and do not speak arabic. [40] Umar appointed the best available and well-reputed commanders for the campaign.[39][41]. Upon his return, he received news of the assembling of a large Persian army. Khosrau II was executed in 628 and as a result, there were numerous claimants to the throne; from 628 to 632 there were ten kings and queens of Persia. Arabs are identified according to the country they live in, the religion they subscribe to, language they use, and sect they follow. Pourshariati's central thesis is that contrary to what was commonly assumed, the Sassanian Empire was highly decentralized, and was in fact a "confederation" with the Parthians, who themselves retained a high level of independence. The nobility and city-dwellers were the first to convert. It stretched from what is now northeastern Iran, northwestern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan. One of Prophet Muhammed's early followers and disciples, Salman Al-Farsi, was Persian. The Ottoman Turks brought a form of Iranian civilization to the walls of Vienna.[55]. 643, Uthman ibn Abi al-As seized Bishapur, which signed a peace treaty. A Persian convert to Islam, Hormoz ibn Hayyan al-'Abdi, was then sent by Uthman ibn Abi al-As to attack a fortress known as Senez on the coast of Fars. Umar ordered Ahnaf to break up the alliance. Persian and arabic share the same script but are vastly different languages. The only dangers expected from the south were occasional raids by nomadic Arab tribesmen. [71] Islam was readily accepted by Zoroastrians who were employed in industrial and artisan positions because, according to Zoroastrian dogma, such occupations that involved defiling fire made them impure. It is considered to be one of the largest and most diverse ethnic groups in the world. Today the relation between Arabic and Persian languages is like the relation between English and French. Then, Abdullah ibn Muta'am marched against Tikrit and captured the city with the help of Christians, after fierce resistance. Thereafter, a Muslim force under Qa'qa marched in pursuit of the escaping Persians at Khaniqeen, 25 kilometres (15 mi) from Jalawla on the road to Iran, still under the command of Mihran. [65][66][67] Zoroastrians who were captured as slaves in wars were given their freedom if they converted to Islam. For many decades to come, this was the easternmost limit of Muslim rule. The military governor of Estakhr, 'Ubayd Allah ibn Ma'mar, was defeated and killed. Umar was assassinated in November 644 by a Persian slave named Piruz Nahavandi. Umar ordered his army to retreat to the Arabian border and began raising armies at Medina for another campaign into Mesopotamia. Khalid won decisive victories in four consecutive battles: the Battle of Chains, fought in April; the Battle of River, fought in the third week of April; the Battle of Walaja the following month (where he successfully used a double envelopment manoeuvre), and the Battle of Ullais, fought in mid-May. He has sent me for the guidance of all people so that I may warn them all of His wrath and may present the unbelievers with an ultimatum. These letters were carried by ambassadors to Persia, Byzantium, Ethiopia, Egypt, Yemen, and Hira (Iraq) on the same day. Eventually, military reinforcements quashed the insurgency and imposed Islamic control. Even Rostam-e Farokhzad, who was both Eran Spahbod and Viceroy, did not see the Arabs as a threat. Iran - Iran - History: This article discusses the history of Iran from 640 ce to the present. By then almost the whole of the South Caucasus was captured.[51]. He has the same rights and duties that we have. Akbar Shah Najeebabadi, The history of Islam. Arabs shared this haplogroup due to contacts with Africa. [39] Khalid's reputation as the conqueror of the Eastern Roman provinces demoralized the Persian commanders, most of whom had already been defeated by him during his conquest of Mesopotamia in 633. Added to this is the manifest antagonism between Iran and traditional Arab governments, most obviously Saudi Arabia. Umar refused to take any chances; he never perceived the Persians as being weak, which facilitated the speedy conquest of the Persian Empire. [48], Eighteen months later, Rabi was summoned to Basra, and was replaced by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Samura. [57][58][59] Umar had liberal policies towards dhimmis, adopted to make the conquered less rebellious and more receptive to Arab colonization. Qa'qa defeated the Persian forces in the Battle of Khaniqeen and captured the city. Umar then ordered Utbah ibn Ghazwan to send reinforcements to Khulayd. [41] Ahnaf marched from Kufa and took a short and less frequented route via Rey and Nishapur. This horrified Aparviz, who, in order to spare the inhabitants of Sakastan from the Arabs, made peace with them in return for a heavy tribute of 1 million dirhams, including 1,000 slave boys (or girls) bearing 1,000 golden vessels. In 651 the conquest of Khurasan was assigned to Ahnaf ibn Qais. There were also large and thriving Christian and Jewish communities, along with smaller numbers of Buddhists and other groups. Arabs speak Arabic and all varieties of Arabic; Persians speak Iranian languages and dialects. Akram. And everywhere from Iraq all the way down to Yemen, there are ties of family, language and business. [72] Today Persian is spoken officially in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. Within three months, Saad defeated the Persian army in the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, effectively ending Sassanid rule west of Persia proper. With the Byzantine threat ended, the Sassanid Empire was still a formidable power with vast manpower reserves, and the Arabs soon found themselves confronting a huge Persian army with troops drawn from every corner of the empire, including war elephants, and commanded by its foremost generals. Persian People dedicated to Iranian People who live in IRAN ,their Culture are From 2500 years Ago From ARYAE Race,and the country was managed by big emperors until the revolution in 1979 .Arab culture speak Arabic and the Saudia Arabia is the Main center of the Arabian Race that has the different culture about 1500 Years ago .the Country doesnt have a unique manager and the Managing … The Battle of Nahavand was one of the most decisive battles in Islamic history and proved to be the key to Persia. While Khalid was on his way to attack Qadissiyah (a key fort en route to Ctesiphon), Abu Bakr ordered him to the Roman front in Syria to assume command there.[26]. Khalid received a call for aid from northern Arabia at Dawmat al-Jandal, where another Muslim Arab general, Iyad ibn Ghanm, was trapped among the rebel tribes. Accordingly, he recruited 100,000 hardened veterans and young volunteers from all parts of Persia, under the command of Mardan Shah, which marched to Nahavand for the last titanic struggle with the Caliphate. (Dari, a variant of the Persian language, is the lingua franca and an official language of Afghanistan and is also spoken in Pakistan.) The purpose of this strategy was to allow commanders to mix with their soldiers and to remind them that they are like everyone else: command is only given to the most competent, and, once the battle is over, the commander returns to his previous position. Ch:11. Arabic includes all different varieties of Arabic. The Byzantines regrouped and pushed back in 622 under Heraclius. Arab Muslims first attacked the Sassanid territory in 633, when general Khalid ibn Walid invaded Mesopotamia (Sassanid province of Asōristān; what is now Iraq), which was the political and economic center of the Sassanid state. 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